CSM student and staff handbook

9.7 CSM citation and referencing policy

All references to published and unpublished work in CSM assignments need to be stated or it may be considered as an attempt to plagiarise (see Section 4 and the ELE module on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism). You should cite other persons' work in the main text of your assignment using the following format:

  • Figures derived from published sources, even if redrawn, must have their source cited. If you have used a figure with no modification, the caption should include e.g. “from Tucker (1986)”. If you have modified the figure, then the caption should include e.g. “modified from Tucker (1986)”
  • Cite published papers or books, e.g., as follows: “Gibbs and Marshall (1990) suggested global cooling occurred in the Santonian”, or “Global cooling occured during the Santonian (Gibbs and Marshall, 1990)”.
  • For one or two authors cite both names. For three authors or more cite first author surname and ‘et al.’, e.g. Best et al.(1997) or (Best et al., 1997). The full stop after ‘al’ denotes an abbreviation.
  • If two publications by the same author or group of authors exist in the same year, designate them ‘a’ and ‘b’ in the text, e.g. Williamson (2009a) and Williamson (2009b), and within the reference list.
  • If you wish to quote from a source, you must show that you are quoting by using inverted commas, citing: 'author surname(s), year of publication: page number from which the quote was lifted'. e.g. “peripheral nerves represent a transporting system and, at the same time, a long-living niche where the multipotent cells are hosted” (Ivashkin and Adameyko, 2014: 293). See also: http://ask.fxplus.ac.uk/screencast/exeter-text-citations-harvard-referencing.
  • At the end of your report all references cited are listed under a heading ‘References’ in alphabetical order. If the same first author has more than one publication in a year they are listed in date order.


For your reference page(s), you should adopt the Harvard reference style shown below (see also: http://ask.fxplus.ac.uk/screencast/exeter-making-reference-list):

For a paper published in a scientific journal: Author’s surname(s) and initials (year of publication) paper title, journal name in italics, journal volume: page numbers.

e.g. Pirrie, D., Doyle, P., Marshall, J.D. and Ellis, G. (1995) Cool Cretaceous climates - New data from the Albian of Western Australia, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 152: 739-742.

For a paper published in an edited book: Author’s surname(s) and initials (year of publication) paper title, book editor’s surname(s) and initials (note word ‘ed.’ - when one editor or ‘eds.’ - when there is more than one editor. edited book title in italics, publisher’s name, edited book volume is applicable: page numbers for paper in the edited book.

e.g. Browne, J.R. and Pirrie, D. (1995) Sediment dispersal patterns in a deep marine back-arc basin, James Ross Island, Antarctica; evidence from petrographic studies, in: Hartley, A.J. and Prosser, D.J. eds. Characterisation of deep marine clastic systems, Geological Society Special Publication, 94: 137-154.

For a published book: Book author’s surname(s) and initials (year of publication) book title in italics, publisher’s name: pages used.

e.g. Doyle, P., Bennett, M.R. and Baxter, A.N. (1994) The key to Earth history, John Wiley & Sons, London: pp. 34-39.

For a website link: Author’s surname and initials (year of publication) the title of article/page. access date, <web address> (see also: http://ask.fxplus.ac.uk/screencast/exeter-how-cite-and-reference-website)

e.g. Scott, F. (15/06/2015). Geology of Uranium Deposits. Website accessed 19th June 2015, <http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel- Cycle/Uranium-Resources/Geology-of-Uranium-Deposits/>

back to contents page