HIH3628 - Civil Wars

2014/5 Module description

StaffDr Claire McCallum - Convenor
Dr Timothy Rees - Lecturer
Credit Value30
ECTS Value15
NQF Level6
Duration of Module Term 1: 11 weeks; Term 2: 11 weeks;

Module description

This module explores the form and nature of civil wars, and the attempts at reconciliation that have followed them. The transformative effects of civil wars are explored, from the level of individual experience to national identities, from state formation to state disintegration. Among other issues, we will examine the logic of the violence which drive these conflicts, the relationship between civil wars and other forms of conflict, and look at what happens in societies once the war is over. Spanning different examples of civil war across America, Europe, Asia and Africa from the late eighteenth century to the present day, this module seeks to compare the ways in which civil wars have occurred and been understood in different contexts.

Module aims

This module is designed to enhance students’ understanding of recurring themes in the history of civil wars in comparative contexts. It will be taught by two tutors, and exact chronological and thematic focus will depend on which tutors are teaching the module in any given year. The module will evaluate key topics such as the changing forms and nature of civil war, the role of civilians in conflict, war crimes, concepts of population security and the logics of violence, and post-war reconciliation and commemoration. It will predominantly focus on nineteenth to twenty-first century conflicts in settings ranging from the USA, Latin America, Russia and China to Europe, south Asia and Africa. The module will also introduce students to the approaches of military, political, economic, social and cultural history, as well as inter-disciplinary perspectives drawn from conflict studies. It will engage with a variety of different historical source materials, from military records to visual propaganda, memoirs, reportage and humanitarian documentation. By using a combination of tutor-led seminars and lectures, student-led seminars and independent study, the module will enable students to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of taking a comparative approach to the study of civil war.  In this way students will learn to draw thematic comparisons between material from different sources, show awareness of contrasting approaches to research, and demonstrate an enhanced understanding of some of the philosophical questions arising from research into large historical themes.  They will also learn to present some of these complex issues to the rest of the class by leading a seminar in the second half of the course.

ILO: Module-specific skills

  • 1. Analyse developments in the history of civil wars, and compare examples across a variety of historical time-periods and contexts.
  • 2. Compare and explain key historiographical developments in the history of civil wars across different societies and periods, and relate them to an overall conception of the subject.
  • 3. Evaluate carefully and critically the approaches that historians and scholars working in other disciplines have taken to civil war.
  • 4. Define suitable research topics for independent study/student-led seminars in the history of law and justice, evaluating different and complex types of historical source and historiography.
  • 5. Demonstrate the possibilities and limitations of comparative methodological approaches in historical research more generally.

ILO: Discipline-specific skills

  • 6. Analyse the key developments in complex and unfamiliar political, social, cultural or intellectual environments.
  • 7. Identify and deploy correct terminology in a comprehensible manner; use primary sources in a professional manner; present work in the format expected of historians, including footnoting and bibliographical references.
  • 8. Assess critically different approaches to history in a contested area.

ILO: Personal and key skills

  • 9. Work both in a team and independently.
  • 10. Digest, select and organise material to produce, to a deadline, a coherent and cogent argument, developed through the mode of assessment.
  • 11. As a team, lead a group discussion of a historical topic.

Syllabus plan

Weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, 9: Five sessions covering methodological and conceptual issues relating to civil wars and insurgencies, case studies, and set-up for student-led seminars.  Each session will be taught through one 2-hour seminar and one 1-hour lecture. The lectures will focus on worked examples or case studies from the tutor’s own area of specialism and suggest questions and themes which could be explored comparatively by the students themselves.  The seminars will explore particular issues in more depth, through case studies or discussion of particular sources and historiographical debates.  They will also lay the foundations for the student-led seminars in the second half of the course. Topics covered will vary according to tutor availability.

Weeks 11, 13, 15, 17, 19: Five 2-hour seminars led by groups of 2 or 3 students on topics chosen from a selection of case studies offered by tutors. Topics will vary according to tutor availability and student choice.  Alongside these, there will be five 1-hour lectures, as for Weeks 1-9 above.

Week 21: Concluding session: discussion of overarching issues and comparative points.

Potential lecture topics include:

1)     Introducing Civil Wars and Comparative History (CM &TR)

2)     Types of Civil War (TR)

3)     Causes of Civil Wars (TR)

4)     The Nature of Violence in Civil War (TR)

5)     Workshop: Planning and Running a Seminar (CM &TR)

Reading Week

6)     Culture and Civil War (CM)

7)     Civil War and Political Change (TR)

8)     International Intervention in Civil Wars (CM)

9)    Workshop Session II (TBC)

10)   The End of Civil War (TR)

11)   The Memory of Civil War (CM)


Potential seminar topics include:

Seminar 1: Civil Wars and Comparative History: Approaches and Pitfalls

Seminar 2: Defining Civil War

Seminar 3: Why Civil Wars Happen

Seminar 4: Participation and Violence in Civil War

Seminar 5: The Internationalisation of Civil War

Seminar 6: After the Fighting Stops

Learning activities and teaching methods (given in hours of study time)

Scheduled Learning and Teaching ActivitiesGuided independent studyPlacement / study abroad

Details of learning activities and teaching methods

CategoryHours of study timeDescription
Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities1111x 1 hour lectures to run on alternate weeks over both terms, as described in syllabus plan above.
Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities126 x 2 hour tutor led seminars to run in weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 21, as described in syllabus plan above.
Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities105 x 2 hour seminars in weeks 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19. Each led by a group of 2 or 3 students. Topics should be chosen from a menu of subjects agreed in advance by tutors. While tutors give guidance and a basic reading list, students are responsible for designing seminar activities and identifying further reading materials.
Guided independent study267Students prepare for seminars, essay, final report and exam through reading and research; they also work in groups to lead seminars based on projects that have been developed.

Formative assessment

Form of assessmentSize of the assessment (eg length / duration)ILOs assessedFeedback method
Essay plan500 words1-8, 10Verbal and written

Summative assessment (% of credit)

CourseworkWritten examsPractical exams

Details of summative assessment

Form of assessment% of creditSize of the assessment (eg length / duration)ILOs assessedFeedback method
Essay303000 words1-8, 10Verbal and written
Report based on group seStudent led seminar302 hours 1-11Verbal and written
Seen, open-note exam402 questionsin 2 hours1-8, 10Written

Details of re-assessment (where required by referral or deferral)

Original form of assessmentForm of re-assessmentILOs re-assessedTimescale for re-assessment
EssayEssay (3000 words)1-8, 10Referral/deferral period
Student led seminarSeminar plan and reading list corresponding to one student’s contribution to the group seminar (c.45 minutes)1-11Referral/deferral period
Seen open-note examSeen open-note exam1-8, 10Referral/deferral period

Indicative learning resources - Basic reading

  • Branch, D. Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Insurgency, Civil War and Decolonization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
  • Casanova, J. The Spanish Civil War (London: I. B. Tauris, 2012).
  • Collier, P. & Sambanis, N (eds.) Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis (Washington: World Bank, 2005).
  • Connelly, M. A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
  • Cramer, C. Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: Accounting for Violence in Developing Countries(London: Hurst & Co. 2006).
  • Farmers, A. The American Civil War 1848-1865 (London: Hodder, 2006)
  • Giustozzi, A. The Art of Coercion (London: Hurst, 2011)
  • Kalyvas, S. The Logic of Violence in Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  • Race, J. War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley, CA.: University of California Press, 1973).
  • Reno, W. Warfare in African History. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). 
  • Richards, P. Fighting for the Rainforest: War, Youth and Resources in Sierra Leone (London: Heinemann, 2006).
  • Schmidt, E. Foreign Intervention in Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
  • Turner, T. The Congo Wars: Conflict, Myth, Reality (London: Zed Books, 2007).
  • Westad, O. A. Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946-1950 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003).
  • Wood, E. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2003).

Module has an active ELE page?


Indicative learning resources - Web based and electronic resources

Available as distance learning?


Origin date


Last revision date


Key words search

Civil war, violence, conflict

Important please note

Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the module descriptors for the Online Module Selection process, please be aware that on rare occasions it may be necessary to remove proposed modules for reasons beyond our control. In addition, there are still some new modules going through the accreditation process. These will be offered in due course by the relevant discipline.

All modules displayed below have been approved by the approval process but may require further minor amendments before the commencement of teaching.

We are committed to providing an outstanding education and high quality teaching. You can find out details of your modules and any potential changes on these pages. If you are a returning student, joining after the first year or a postgraduate student details of your module changes will be provided in August. 

Foreign Language Centre modules

Term 1 module codes listed above ending with C, i.e. FLF1115C, are only available to outbound students who are away in Term 2. Students studying all year must select the standard module across both Term 1 and 2.