Notes and Reference System

Notes 

• Generally notes (i.e. footnotes) should be kept brief. Source references should be given with as little additional matter as possible. Do not use references to ‘pad’ the text.

• Notes should be numbered throughout the essay or chapter in a dissertation in an unbroken sequence (3a, as an afterthought, is not acceptable). 

• Op. cit., loc. cit. and idem should not be used as forms of reference, but ibid. may be used. Where a reference is identical with the immediately previous one apart from the page numbers cited, the abbreviation ‘Ibid.’ (a contraction of Ibidem, meaning ‘in the same place’) may be used instead of the short title of the book or article concerned. 

• The form of reference used in your notes should be applied consistently. The short-title system described below is the model we use, though you will see others in books and articles. As a general rule, writing in humanities subjects (which refer regularly to historical sources and documents) are best served by the short-title system, whereas books in more technical social science subjects tend to use the author-date system.

 

Referencing

A source should be given a full reference the first time it is cited. After the first mention, references to the source in the notes take a shortened form wherever possible. A shortened reference includes only the last name of the author and the short title of the book (containing the key word or words from the main title, so as to make the reference easily recognizable and not to be confused with any other work), followed by the page number of the reference. The full and shortened reference should include the following information for different types of sources, in the following forms:

Books

Full reference: author's or editor's first name(s) or initials / author's or editor's surname / complete title (including subtitle, if any) / compiler or translator, if any / series title, if any / edition, if not the original / number of volumes, if applicable / place of publication and date of publication (in brackets) / volume number (preferably in roman numbers), if applicable / page number(s): single pages use p. and multiple use pp.

e.g. A. T. Runnock, Medieval fortress building, new edition, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1976), vol. I, pp. 135-7.

e.g. G. S. Rousseau and Pat Rogers (eds.), The enduring legacy: Alexander Pope, tercentenary essays (Cambridge, 1988), p. 44.

e.g. F. H. Behrends (ed. and trans.), The Letters and poems of Fulbert of Chartres, (Oxford, 1976), p. 20.

Short reference: author's or editor's surname (no first name or initials unless there is more than one author with the surname) / short title of the book / volume number, if applicable / page number(s) 

e.g. Rousseau and Rogers (eds.), Enduring Legacy, p. 45.

In general, titles of two or three words should not be shortened,

e.g. Runnock, Medieval Fortress Building, p. 74.

 

Articles and Essays in Journals

Full reference: author's first name(s) or initials / author's surname / title of the article (in inverted commas) / title of the journal / volume number (in arabic numbers) / date of volume (in brackets) / page number(s), if available (without p. or pp.)

e.g. Elizabeth Salter, 'Piers Plowman and the pilgrimage to truth' , Essays and Studies 11 (1958), 34-5.

e.g. Arthur Jerrold Tieje, 'A peculiar phase of the theory of realism in pre-Richardsonian fiction', PMLA 28 (1913), 237.

Short reference: author's surname (no first name or initials unless there is more than one author with the surname) / short title of the article (in inverted commas) / page number(s) (without p. or pp.)

e.g. Salter, 'Pilgrimage to truth', 34-5.

e.g. Tieje, 'A peculiar phase', 75.

 

Articles and Essays in Edited Collections

Full reference: author’s first name(s) or initials / author’s surname / title of the article (in inverted commas) / ‘in’ followed by the editor’s name/initials and surname / (ed.) or (eds.) depending upon the number of editors / series title, if any / edition, if not the original / number of volumes, if applicable / place of publication and date of publication (in brackets) / volume number (preferably in Roman numbers), if applicable / page number(s): single pages use p. and multiple use pp.

e.g. S. Keynes, ‘The vikings in England, c. 790-1016’ in P. H. Sawyer (ed.), The Oxford illustrated history of the Vikings, (Oxford, 1997), pp. 48-82.

Short reference: author’s surname / short title of the article (in inverted commas) / page number (s)

e.g. Keynes, ‘The vikings in England’, pp. 54-62. 

 

Review Articles

Full reference: Author of the review article’s first name(s) or initials / Author’s of the review article’s surname / title of the article (in inverted commas) incorporating the name(s) of the author(s) and the title(s) of the book(s) reviewed / title of the journal / volume number (in arabic numerals) / date of  volume (in brackets) / page number(s): (without p. or pp.)

e.g. David Ganz, ‘Review article: When is a library not a library?  The Anglo-Saxon Library by M. Lapidge’, Early MedievalEurope 17 (2009), 444.

Short reference: Author of the review article’s surname / Short title of the article (in inverted commas) / Page number(s)

e.g.  Ganz, ‘When is a library’, 452. 

 

Reviews

Full reference: author of the review’s first name or initial / author of the review’s surname / prefix: ‘review of (begin inverted commas) / author of the book reviewed / title of the book reviewed (italicised) (end inverted commas) / journal title / volume number / year of publication (in brackets) / page number(s): (without p. or pp.)

e.g. Alexander O’Hara, ‘Review of Bobbio in the early Middle Ages: the abiding legacy of Columbanus, by Michael Richter’,Early Medieval Europe 17 (2009), 467.

Short reference: Author’s of the review’s surname / Shortened title of the review / Page number(s)

e.g. O’Hara, ‘Review: Bobbio in the Early Middle Ages’, 468.

 

Documents or Manuscript Materials (incl. unpublished theses or dissertations)

References to documents, manuscripts and other kinds of unpublished materials from archives or other kinds of collections are among the most difficult to correctly formulate. The most important thing is to be consistent and to provide enough information that anyone else wishing to consult the particular source could find it from your reference. The normal order in which information is supplied (where applicable to each source) is:

Full reference: author's first name(s) or initials / author's surname / title of document (in inverted commas) / volume or batch number, where applicable / name of collection, if known / folio number (if applicable) / depositary and where located (or academic institution with date for PhD theses and dissertations) / call or box number (if applicable)

e.g. H. R. Southall, 'Regional unemployment patterns in Britain, 1851 to 1914', unpublished PhD thesis, University ofCambridge (1984), p. 72.

e.g. Richardson to Lady Bradshaigh, 15 December 1748, 'Richardson / Bradshaigh letters', Forster collection, XI, fo. 7,Harvard University.

e.g. Special executive committee minutes, 2 Sept. 1931, Doncaster Labour party papers, Doncaster Archives Department, DS 7/1/5.

e.g. Neville to Ida Chamberlain,12 Sept. 1931, Chamberlain papers, Birmingham University Library, NC 18/1/754.

For multiple references to papers from the same archive or collection, it is also possible to introduce a shortened form for subsequent use after the first full citation.

e.g.. Neville to Ida Chamberlain, 12 Sept. 1931, Chamberlain Papers (henceforth CP), Birmingham University Library (henceforth BUL), NC 18/1/754.

Short reference: author's surname (no first name or initials unless there is more than one author with the surname) / short title / page number(s)

e.g. Southall, 'Regional unemployment', p. 72. 

e.g. 'Richardson / Bradshaigh letters', fo. 116.

e.g. Special executive committee minutes, 2 Sept. 1931, Doncaster Labour party papers, DAD, DS 7/1/5.

e.g. Neville to Ida Chamberlain,12 Sept. 1931, CP, BUL,  NC 18/1/754.


Newspapers and Published Materials

This covers a variety of different types of sources, including official papers and published government reports. Newspapers appear as title (in italics as a published work) following by the date of publication. The months are usually given in a shortened form. It is not necessary to give page numbers.

e.g. The Times, 24 Aug. 1931.

Some other published records, such as parliamentary debates, take a similar form.

e.g. Hansard, 27 Jun. 1918.

Government reports should be cited according to the conventions of the different bodies/countries they come from. You will probably have to find out the conventions for each different type of report that you encounter. But here is an example of a British parliamentary report:

e.g. Parliamentary Paper (PP) 1914-1916, xxxix, Cd 8149 Earl of Derby’s Report on Recruiting. 

 

Websites and On-line Material

A wide variety of material is now available on-line and takes many forms, so that conventions for referencing are not as fixed as for printed works such as books and articles. If an item you read from a database is also available in print you should reference it as normal (e.g. journal or newspaper articles). If the item was accessed online from a database but it is not widely available elsewhere (such as an old book, document) you should provide full details as normal and also provide the name of the database from which you accessed it. The titles of databases should be given and their online location should be cited in Roman text with no enclosing brackets.

e.g. T. Tusser, Five hundred points of good Husbandry united with as many of good Huswiferie (London, 1573) in Early English Books Online http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home 

If the item is only available from a database or online source you need to give as full details as possible as to the author (s) and titles of the material, and/or a description of the material  and the nature of the database/online source, plus the full URL for the website or database. You also need to provide the date on which you last accessed the material. 

e.g. ‘The opening of St Luke’s Gospel in the Lindesfarne Gospels’ British Library, Collect Britainhttp://www.collectbritain.co.uk/collections/illuminated (Last accessed 7 February 2006).

e.g. Extract of an Interview with Alexander Clark, Imperial War Museum Collections,  ‘The War at Sea’,http://www.iwmcollections.org.uk/atsea/essay.php (last accessed 22 September 2009).