Referencing: the Harvard System

The academic publications that you will use in your degree will contain references and a bibliography that allows you to pursue a particular issue raised: your essays should similarly be properly referenced and contain a full bibliography. Various systems of referencing are used in academic publishing, and in this Department we use the Harvard System. An important skill that graduates are expected to have is the ability to follow guidelines. Referencing an essay, and laying out a bibliography is a good example, and a failure to follow these guidelines when preparing assignments will be penalised, and could even lead to a charge of plagiarism.

Every essay should have a bibliography at the end, listing all the books and articles which you have actually used and referred to in the text. You must ensure that all relevant works included in the bibliography are cited in the text (i.e. you must have actually read and used them). The bibliography should be laid out according to the Harvard System as illustrated below. Even combined honours students are expected to follow this style in their archaeology assignments.

For examples of good referencing practice see the journal Antiquity or a recent Council for British Archaeology Research Report (e.g. S. Rippon 1996: The Gwent Levels). An example of a piece of referenced text, and a properly laid out bibliography is given below:

'It is now recognised that regional variation in economic systems and social structures occurred at a much more local scale (e.g. Jones and Mattingly 1990, 197-201). Large-scale survey and excavation also led to a realisation that the landscape of Roman Britain was more densely populated than was previously thought, expanding from Collingwood and Myres’ (1937, 180) c.1million, to Salway’s (1981, 544) 4 to 6 million (and see Millett 1990, 181-6). Todd (1977, 319) has argued that this number of people could not simply have disappeared in the early 5th century, as there is no evidence for wide spread plague (and see Crawford 1997, 46; Dark and Dark 1996, 65-8).'

Collingwood, R.G. and Myres, J.N.L. 1937: Roman Britain and the English Settlements. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Crawford, S. 1997: Britons, Anglo-Saxons and the Germanic burial ritual. In J. Chapman and H.Hamerow (eds), Migration and Invasion in Archaeology, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 45-72.
Dark, K.R. and Dark, S.P. 1996: New palynological evidence from Hadrian’s Wall. Archaeologia Aeliana, 5th ser., XXIV, 57-72.
Jones, B. and Mattingly, D. 1990: Atlas of Roman Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Millett, M. 1990: The Romanization of Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Salway, P. 1981: Roman Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Todd, M. 1977: Famosa Pestis and fifth-century Britain, Britannia 8, 319-25.

Arrangement of the bibliography

The bibliography should be arranged alphabetically by author, and chronologically within an individual author’s works. Within the individual author’s works, single-author/editor works precede multi-author/editor works (e.g. Breeze 1990 comes before Breeze and Dobson 1984). If an author has had more than one book or article that you are using published in a single year, refer to them (in text and bibliography) as Cunliffe 1991a, Cunliffe 1991b etc. If your bibliography contains references to two or more authors with the same surname, you must use their initials to distinguish them (Fowler, E. 1972): (Fowler, P. 1972). British archaeology has multiple Birleys, Clark(e)s, Coles, Fowlers, Highams etc.! In the case of books and articles with multiple authors or editors (3 or more) put Bloggs et al. in the text (e.g. Bloggs et al. 1990), though the full names of Bloggs’ co-authors/editors must appear in the bibliography (e.g. Bloggs, A., Smith, B., and Turner, T). In typing out the bibliography you should indent the second (and subsequent) line of each entry as this makes the individual entries stand out clearly from one another. Do NOT use bullet points.
Abbreviations can be used in a bibliography only if they will be clearly understandable. J. for Journal, Trans. for Transactions, Soc. for Society: but not Arch. for Archaeology since this could also mean Architecture (as for example in the Trans. Durham and Northumberland Architect. and Archaeol Soc.). NOTE: the entries are in alphabetical order and DON’T have bullet points.

References to monographs

(A book written by one or more authors)

In the bibliography you must give details of author(s), date, title and place of publication and publisher (in that order). The title must be italicised.
Deuel, L. 1969: Flights into Yesterday. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
In the body of the text, the reference is placed in brackets at the end of the section/sentence/phrase to which it applies. Unless you are making a very general reference to the book as a whole, your text reference will include page numbers thus: (Deuel 1969, 25-32).

References to edited volumes

(A collection of papers written by individual authors, but in a book edited by one or more scholars)

In the bibliography you must give details of the editor(s), date, title of the volume (italicised or underlined), place of publication and publisher:
Fowler, E. (ed.) 1972: Field Survey in British Archaeology. London: CBA.
Rogers, A. and Rowley, T. (eds) 1974: Landscapes and Documents. London: Bedford Square Press.
These would appear in your text as (Fowler 1972) and (Rogers and Rowley 1974).

References to articles in an edited volume

You must refer to a particular article in such a volume (as distinct from the volume as a whole). In the bibliography you state the author of the article, the title of the article, the editor(s), title of the book and place of publication, and finally the page numbers of the article:
Bowen, H.C. 1972: Archaeological Photography: some implications in the south of England, in E. Fowler (ed.), Field Survey in British Archaeology, London: CBA, 38-49.
The text reference for this would be (Bowen 1972, 40).

References to articles in periodicals/journals

In the bibliography you need to give details of the author(s), date of publication, title of the article, title of the periodical (italicised), number of the volume, and full page numbers of the article in question:
Fojut, N. 1982: Towards a geography of Shetland Brochs, Glasgow Archaeol. J. 9, 38-59.
This would appear in the text as (Fojut 1982, 48).
Note that on occasions the issue date and publication date do not coincide: in cases such as this (which are rare) the publication date is the one to be used in the text reference.
Higham, N.J. and Jones, G.D.B. 1976: Frontiers, forts and farmers: Cumbrian aerial survey1974-5, Archaeol. J. 132 for 1975, 16-53.
This would appear in the text as (Higham and Jones 1976, 50 and fig.4).

References within the text

References should appear close to the point being made:
‘The propriety of using the term "demography" in a prehistoric or early historic context is doubtful (Atkinson 1970, 60). Thus it could be ...’
Note that the reference appears before the full-stop.
Alternatively, this could be written: ‘Atkinson has argued (1972, 60) that the propriety of ...’
When one author refers to or quotes from the work of another you must make it clear which you have actually read, using a phrase such as (Renfrew in Bradley 1994, 34) or (Renfrew, quoted by Bradley1994, 34). You should always try and read the original paper/book.

Referencing unpublished material/referencing the World Wide Web

If you use material off the WWW, you should reference it as closely as possible, so that someone else could quickly find the information. The bibliography entry should follow the Harvard system:
University of Exeter 1999 Guidelines on Plagiarism.
The text reference would read (University of Exeter 1999).
Remember that anyone can place material on the Web: unlike the vast majority of research published in paper-format, material on the Web may not have been reviewed by independent scholars (a process known as refereeing), and so may be inaccurate or biased.

Referencing ‘personal communications’

If a scholar (e.g. A. Smith) heard some information at a conference in 1999 that they wanted to then use in a published paper, they would contact the person who gave the conference paper (e.g. B. Jones) to see whether that material was published. If not, then the scholar would ask permission to use the material given in the conference paper: if permission was forthcoming then Smith would cite the material in their paper as (Jones pers. comm., 1999). It is very rare that you will be in this situation. You should avoid referencing material from one of your lectures as pers. comm.: if you want to cite an example of opinion given in a lecture, see the relevant tutor to establish whether that example or opinion has been published.

Referencing historic archives

Particularly in your dissertation, you may use unpublished historical archives, in which case you should seek the advice of your supervisor/tutor as to how to reference such material. As a general guide you should use an abbreviation for the library/records office in which the material is held (e.g. SRO: Somerset Records Office), and then the accession number of the particular document: SRODD/DD 12/3.