Full references

A source should be given a full reference the first time it is cited. The full reference should include the following information for different types of sources, in the following forms:
Full references to books
author's or editor's first name(s) or initials
author's or editor's surname
complete title (including subtitle, if any)
compiler or translator, if any
series title, if any
edition, if not the original
number of volumes, if applicable
place of publication and date of publication (in brackets)
volume number (preferably in roman numbers), if applicable
page number(s): single pages use p. and multiple use pp.

 

 

e.g. A. T. Runnock, Medieval fortress building, new edition, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1976), vol. I, pp. 135-7.

e.g. G. S. Rousseau and Pat Rogers (eds.), The enduring legacy: Alexander Pope, tercentenary essays (Cambridge, 1988), p. 44.

e.g. F. H. Behrends (ed. and trans.), The Letters and poems of Fulbert of Chartres, Oxford medieval texts (Oxford, 1976), p. 20

 


Full references to articles and essays in journals
author's first name(s) or initials
author's surname
title of the article (in inverted commas)
title of the journal
volume number (in arabic numbers)
date of volume (in brackets)
page number(s), if available (without p. or pp.)

 

e.g. Elizabeth Salter, 'Piers Plowman and the pilgrimage to truth' , Essays and Studies 11 (1958), 34-5.

e.g. Arthur Jerrold Tieje, 'A peculiar phase of the theory of realism in pre-Richardsonian fiction', PMLA 28 (1913), 237.


Full references to articles and essays in edited collections
author’s first name(s) or initials
author’s surname
title of the article (in inverted commas)
‘in’ followed by the editor’s name/initials and surname
(ed.) or (eds.) depending upon the number of editors
series title, if any
edition, if not the original
number of volumes, if applicable
place of publication and date of publication (in brackets)
volume number (preferably in roman numbers), if applicable
page number(s): single pages use p. and multiple use pp.

 

 

e.g. S. Keynes, ‘The vikings in England, c. 790-1016’ in P. H. Sawyer (ed.), The Oxford illustrated history of the Vikings, (Oxford, 1997), pp. 48-82


Full references to review articles
Author of the review article’s first name(s) or initials
Author’s of the review article’s surname
title of the article (in inverted commas) incorporating the name(s) of the author(s) and the title(s) of the book(s) reviewed
title of the journal
volume number (in arabic numerals)
date of  volume (in brackets)
page number(s): (without p. or pp.)

e.g. David Ganz, ‘Review article: When is a library not a library?  The Anglo-Saxon Library by M. Lapidge’, Early Medieval Europe 17 (2009), 444

Full references to reviews
author of the review’s first name or initial
author of the review’s surname
prefix: ‘review of (begin inverted commas)
author of the book reviewed
title of the book reviewed (italicised) (end inverted commas)
journal title
volume number
year of publication (in brackets)
page number(s): (without p. or pp.)

 
e.g. Alexander O’Hara, ‘Review of Bobbio in the early Middle Ages: the abiding legacy of Columbanus, by Michael Richter’, Early Medieval Europe 17 (2009), 467.

 


Full references to documents, manuscript material (including unpublished theses or dissertations)
References to documents, manuscripts and other kinds of unpublished materials from archives or other kinds of collections are among the most difficult. Again the most important thing is to be consistent and to provide enough information that anyone else wishing to consult the particular source could find it from your reference. The normal order in which information is supplied (where applicable to each source) is:
author's first name(s) or initials
author's surname
title of document (in inverted commas)
volume or batch number, where applicable
name of collection, if known
folio number (if applicable)
depositary and where located (or academic institution with date for PhD theses and dissertations)
call or box number (if applicable)

 

e.g. H. R. Southall, 'Regional unemployment patterns in Britain, 1851 to 1914', unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge (1984), p. 72.

e.g. Richardson to Lady Bradshaigh, 15 December 1748, 'Richardson / Bradshaigh letters', Forster collection, XI, fo. 7, Harvard University.

e.g. Special executive committee minutes, 2 Sept. 1931, Doncaster Labour party papers, Doncaster Archives Department, DS 7/1/5

e.g. Neville to Ida Chamberlain,12 Sept. 1931, Chamberlain papers, Birmingham University Library, NC 18/1/754


For multiple references to papers from the same archive or collection, it is also possible to introduce a shortened form for subsequent use after the first full citation. e.g.. Neville to Ida Chamberlain, 12 Sept. 1931, Chamberlain Papers (henceforth CP), Birmingham University Library (henceforth BUL), NC 18/1/754.

References to newspapers and other published primary materials
This covers a variety of different types of sources, including official papers and published government reports.
Newspapers appear as title (in italics as a published work) following by the date of publication. The months are usually given in a shortened form. It is not necessary to give page numbers.

 

e.g. The Times, 24 Aug. 1931.

Some other published records, such as parliamentary debates, take a similar form.

e.g. Hansard, 27 Jun. 1918

 


Government reports should be cited according to the conventions of the different bodies/countries they come from. You will probably have to find out the conventions for each different type of report that you encounter. But here is an example of a British parliamentary report:

 
e.g. Parliamentary Paper (PP) 1914-1916, xxxix, Cd 8149 Earl of Derby’s Report on Recruiting