Mining and Minerals Engineering

CSM3365 - Energy Storage Technology (2012)

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MODULE TITLEEnergy Storage Technology CREDIT VALUE10
MODULE CODECSM3365 MODULE CONVENERDr Chuang Peng (Coordinator)
Number of Students Taking Module (anticipated) 27
DESCRIPTION - summary of the module content

This module summarises and compares the basic principles, characteristics, advantages and limitations of the existing energy storage technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, redox flow batteries, supercapacitors, pumped hydro, compressed air, flywheel, etc.

Required prior knowledge: A level physics and A level chemistry

Suitable for both specialist and non-specialist students

Interdisciplinary: thermodynamics, physics, electrochemistry, materials science

AIMS - intentions of the module

One of the most important technical disadvantages of renewable energy resources is their characteristic of supply intermittency; at certain times the resource is over-abundant, at others the resource is non-existent. Energy demand, although temporally variable, is rarely intermittent. This module discusses technologies that allow energy recovered from renewable and other resources to be stored such that the characteristic of intermittency is overcome and the energy mixes with high renewables content can maintain the energy market balance.

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES (ILOs) (see assessment section below for how ILOs will be assessed)

On successful completion of this module you should be able to demonstrate:

Module Specific Skills and Knowledge: ability to analyse energy demand profiles and to and put forward explanations for their particular forms. ability to apply scientific and mathematical methods to quantify the variability and intermittency of renewable energy resources. ability to design energy mixes in response to defined energy policy, such that demand is met with a defined probability.

4.that their knowledge and understanding of the scientific principles governing electrolysis and fuel cells, materials used in their manufacture, their fuel feed-stocks and their operational performance, can be used to identify appropriate systems in familiar and unfamiliar application areas.

By means of successfully completing an analysis for large and small scale storage options in a national context and a laboratory experiment, candidates should demonstrate:

5.knowledge and understanding, and ability to quantify, the relative capacities and efficiencies of various types of energy storage technologies. ability to apply their knowledge and understanding of large scale energy storage facilities and small scale, or short time-scale, energy storage systems to identify optimal energy storage solutions in varying application areas.

7.ability to quantify the economic benefit or demerits of an energy storage technology and to reflect upon the role of energy storage within society.

Discipline Specific Skills and Knowledge: ability to apply a scientific approach to the analysis of data, to critically review results such that inconsistencies and misleading impressions are identified, sufficiency and appropriateness are characterised and conclusions, with properly qualified limitations, can be drawn.

9.detailed appreciation of the complexity of the problem of optimally matching energy supply to energy demand, its relation to the form or primary energy and detailed understanding of options for energy storage and buffering. ability to apply methods and techniques to account for the industrial and commercial constraints in problem solving.

11.deep appreciation of the link between national energy policy and energy technology.

Personal and Key Transferable/ Employment Skills and  Knowledge: ability to plan and execute practical tests of energy storage equipment and critically analyse the results of such tests.

13.autonomy in planning and managing resources that support the syllabus plan and can reflect on the efficiency of use of these resources.

14.that they can conduct and present / report calculations, to a deadline, with awareness of professional codes of conduct and can incorporate an ethical dimension and/or exercise personal judgement into/on their work

SYLLABUS PLAN - summary of the structure and academic content of the module
  1. Electricity demand side variability
  2. Technical issues and economic impacts of peak loading on grid systems
  3. Base load issues and the national energy mix
  4. Renewable energy supply side variability and intermittency: wind, solar, hydro, wave, tidal
  5. Physical storage media: Compressed air, Electrochemical cells
  6. Virtual storage media: Electricity distribution infrastructure, Liquid and solid biomass
  7. The hydrogen economy
  8. Calculation of electrode potentials and cell voltages
  9. Electrolysis
  10. Hydrogen production through reformation
  11. Hydrogen production through electrolysis
  12. Fuel feedstocks for the hydrogen economy
  13. Battery characteristics and charging/discharging curves
  14. Lead acid batteries
  15. Ni metal hydride batteries
  16. Lithium ion batteries
  17. Fuel cell operation principles and efficiency
  18. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
  19. Alkaline fuel cells
  20. Phosphoric acid fuel cells
  21. Molten carbonate fuel cells
  22. Solid oxide fuel cells
  23. Regenerative fuel cells
  24. Fuel cell applications: Transport, Combined Heat and Power
  25. Supercapacitors
  26. Small scale storage systems: flywheels and springs.
  27. Small scale storage systems: hydraulic and pneumatic accumulators.
  28. Small scale storage systems: continuous and standby uninterruptible power supplies.
  29. Large scale storage solutions: hydro pump storage.
  30. Large scale storage solutions: compressed air energy storage.
  31. Large scale storage solutions: underground gas reservoirs.
  32. Energy storage economics.
  33. Environmental implications of energy storage.
Scheduled Learning & Teaching Activities 27.00 Guided Independent Study 73.00 Placement / Study Abroad
Category Hours of study time Description
Scheduled learning & teaching activities 27 Lectures
Guided independent study 73 Private study


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT - for feedback and development purposes; does not count towards module grade
Coursework 100 Written Exams 0 Practical Exams
Form of Assessment % of Credit Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method
Assignment 50 10 questions 4,9 Written

Strategic energy storage calcs

50 3 pages A4, 1000 words 5,7,8,11 Written


DETAILS OF RE-ASSESSMENT (where required by referral or deferral)
Original Form of Assessment Form of Re-assessment ILOs Re-assessed Time Scale for Re-reassessment
Summative assessment Additional assessment As above August Ref/Def period



As above 1 piece of CW 100%

INDICATIVE LEARNING RESOURCES - The following list is offered as an indication of the type & level of
information that you are expected to consult. Further guidance will be provided by the Module Convener

Basic reading:

Bullough, C., Gatzen, C., Jakiel, C., Koller, M., Nowi, A., and Zunft S., 2004. Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage for the Integration of Wind Energy. Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference, EWEC 2004, 22-25 November 2004, London UK. Available on RE Share Drive.

ELE: CSM3365 ELE Page

Web based and Electronic Resources:

Chabrelie, M-F., Dussaud, M., Bourjas, D. and Hugout, B., Underground gas storage: technological innovations for increased efficiency Word Energy

Other Resources:

Makansi, J., Energy Storage: The Sixth Dimension of the Electricity Production and Delivery Value Chain. Presentation made on behalf of the US Energy Storage Council. Available on the RE Share Drive.                                                                                       


Reading list for this module:

Type Author Title Edition Publisher Year ISBN Search
Set Singhal, S.C. & Kendall, K. High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, Elsevier 2003 1856173879 [Library]
Set Rifkin, J. The Hydrogen Economy: The Creation of the World-wide Energy Web and the Redistribution of Power on Earth Cambridge Press 2002 0745630413 [Library]
Set Larminie, J. Fuel cell systems explained Chichester : Wiley 2003 047084857X [Library]
Set Sorenson, B. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Emerging Technologies and Applications Elsevier 2005 0126552819 [Library]
Set Kiehne, H.A. Battery Technology Handbook 2nd ), Marcel Dekker Inc. 0824742494 [Library]
Set Fontes, E., Oloman C., and Lindbergh, G. Handbook of fuel cell modelling Oxford: Elsevier Advanced Technology 2003 1856174034 [Library]
Set Douglas, T.H. Pumped storage London : Thomas Telford 1990 0727715860 [Library]
ORIGIN DATE Monday 12 March 2012 LAST REVISION DATE Thursday 18 October 2012
KEY WORDS SEARCH Energy storage, batteries, fuel cells, redox flow batteries, supercapacitors, pumped hydro, compressed air, flywheel