Mining and Minerals Engineering

CSM1034 - Crystallography and Mineralogy (2012)

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MODULE TITLECrystallography and Mineralogy CREDIT VALUE15
MODULE CODECSM1034 MODULE CONVENERProf Frances Wall (Coordinator)
DURATION: TERM 1 2 3
DURATION: WEEKS 9
Number of Students Taking Module (anticipated) 38
DESCRIPTION - summary of the module content

Minerals are the building blocks of the Earth, from the depths of our planet’s interior to soils at the surface. This module introduces minerals and the techniques used to study them, set into the context of how minerals are used in our everyday lives and how they tell the story of rocks. Each session involves practical work in the laboratory, with rocks and minerals, crystal models and/or optical microscopes. The skills learned are used throughout the geology degrees.

There are no pre-requisite courses, although it is helpful to have studied the introductory geology and chemistry modules. A background in science subjects is useful. The module is suitable for non-specialist students and interdisciplinary pathways.

AIMS - intentions of the module

To acquire knowledge of crystals and the common rock-forming minerals and gain experience in recognising minerals in hand specimen and thin section.

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES (ILOs) (see assessment section below for how ILOs will be assessed)

Module Specific Skills and Knowledge:

1. Describe, identify and classify some common minerals including: pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, hematite, magnetite, cassiterite, wolframite, bornite, galena, chalcopyrite, calcite, baryte, hematite, garnet, clay, mica, feldspar, quartz, gypsum.

2. Demonstrate an understanding of the commercial significance of these minerals, their chemical formula and mineral structure.

3. Recognise the symmetry elements of crystals.

4. Describe the factors controlling the formation and stability of common rock-forming minerals.

5. Describe how minerals can be used to elucidate the story of how rocks formed: when, how and where, including the use of zircon and relevance of accessory minerals such as monazite and titanite.

6. Demonstrate a proficiency in identifying silicates using a petrological microscope.

7. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic theory of mineral optics using transmitted light.

8. Demonstrate an understanding of basic principles of identification of minerals by EPMA and XRD.

Discipline Specific Skills and Knowledge:

9. Use transmitted light microscopy to determine the basic optical properties of minerals.

10. To calculate mineral formulae from chemical analyses.

11. To identify common minerals.

Personal and Key Transferable/ Employment Skills and  Knowledge:

12. Demonstrate good working practice when using microscopes and their accessories.

13. Demonstrate skills in researching a particular mineral topic.

14. Demonstrate presentation skills in presenting a particular mineral topic.

 

SYLLABUS PLAN - summary of the structure and academic content of the module

• The fundamentals of crystallography, crystal symmetry, crystal forms and Miller indices. • Chemical bonding of atoms; the phenomena of isomorphism, exsolution, polymorphism and twinning. • Description and identification of common minerals, including presentations on individual minerals/mineral groups. • Use of EPMA and XRD to identify minerals. • Mineral stoichiometry and calculation of mineral formulae. • Classification of minerals; structure of silicates; systematic mineralogy of common rock-forming minerals. • Mineral stability and the use of minerals to reconstruct geological history. • Optical microscopy: Uses of transmitted light microscopy. Plane polarization and colour. Definition of refractive index. Optical anisotropy. Crystallographic control of optical anisotropy; refractive indices required to specify isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial minerals. Becke line test. Dispersion. Interference colours and their relationship to anisotropic minerals. Relationship between birefringence, thickness and path difference. Theory and use of accessory plates. Use of plates to identify high order white interference colours and slow/fast vibration directions. Extinction angles and their classification. Sign of optic elongation. Uniaxial optics; ordinary and extraordinary rays and their relationship to crystal symmetry. Biaxial optics; terminology of refractive indices and possible relationships to crystal symmetry. Optic sign and the biaxial indicatrix, 2V angles. Interference figures and other uses.

LEARNING AND TEACHING
LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS (given in hours of study time)
Scheduled Learning & Teaching Activities 36.00 Guided Independent Study 114.00 Placement / Study Abroad
DETAILS OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS
Category Hours of study time Description
Scheduled Learning & Teaching Activities 36 Lectures & practicals
Guided Independent Study 114 Lecture & assessment preparation; private study
     

 

ASSESSMENT
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT - for feedback and development purposes; does not count towards module grade
Form of Assessment Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method

Marking of practical books

marking results from one of the practical sessions

(ILOs 6, 7, 9, 12)

Comments in practical books

       
       
       
       

 

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT (% of credit)
Coursework 25 Written Exams 75 Practical Exams
DETAILS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Form of Assessment % of Credit Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method

Examination

75 2 hours 1-12 Tutor meeting

Presentation on a particular mineral, including brief details of commercial significance

25

15 minute talk and 'PowerPoint' presentation that can be loaded on to ELE

1-5, 13, 14

Immediate class feedback and then mark sheet

         
         
         

 

DETAILS OF RE-ASSESSMENT (where required by referral or deferral)
Original Form of Assessment Form of Re-assessment ILOs Re-assessed Time Scale for Re-reassessment
       
Summative assessment Additional assessment All August Ref/Def period
Examination Additional examination All August Ref/Def period

 

RE-ASSESSMENT NOTES

As above 1 piece of CW 25% and/or 1 Exam 75%

RESOURCES
INDICATIVE LEARNING RESOURCES - The following list is offered as an indication of the type & level of
information that you are expected to consult. Further guidance will be provided by the Module Convener

Basic reading:                                                  

                                                                                                                             

ELE – College to provide hyperlink to appropriate pages

 

Web based and electronic resources: mindat.org                                                                                                                                                                  

Reading list for this module:

Type Author Title Edition Publisher Year ISBN Search
Set Nesse, W.D. Introduction to Mineralogy Oxford University Press 2012 [Library]
Set Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A. & Zussman, J. An introduction to the rock-forming minerals 2nd Longman 1992 [Library]
Set Gribble, C.D. & Hall, A.J. Optical mineralogy: Principles and practice UCL Press 1992 [Library]
Set MacKenzie, R.C. and Adams, A.E. A colour atlas of rocks and minerals in thin section Manson Publishing. Manson Publishing [Library]
Set MacKenzie, W.S. & Guildford, C. Atlas of rock forming minerals in thin section. Longman 1980 [Library]
Set Dyar, M.D. and Gunter, M.E. Illustrated by Tasa, D Mineralogy and Optical Mineralogy Mineralogical Society of America, USA 2008 978-0-939950-81-2 [Library]
CREDIT VALUE 15 ECTS VALUE 7.5
PRE-REQUISITE MODULES None
CO-REQUISITE MODULES None
NQF LEVEL (FHEQ) 1 (NQF Level 4) AVAILABLE AS DISTANCE LEARNING No
ORIGIN DATE Monday 12 March 2012 LAST REVISION DATE Wednesday 17 October 2012
KEY WORDS SEARCH Mineral optical microscopy crystallography rock