ECMM162 - Water Management in Developing Countries (2019)

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MODULE TITLEWater Management in Developing Countries CREDIT VALUE15
MODULE CODEECMM162 MODULE CONVENERProf Fayyaz Ali Memon (Coordinator)
DURATION: WEEKS 0 11 weeks 0
Number of Students Taking Module (anticipated) 0
DESCRIPTION - summary of the module content

This module is aimed at looking to develop your understanding of water management issues, implications and potential interventions meeting developing countries’ complex needs and resources constraints. The module aims to covers a range of engineering, design and sustainability aspects associated with the three urban water flows (i.e. water supply, storm water and wastewater) management. Current situation analysis and the effectiveness of interventions is explored using a range of resources including computational tools and numerous case studies from developing countries. By the end of the module, you  should be able to understand the water management challenges in developing countries and propose approaches to overcome them.

AIMS - intentions of the module

This module aims to provide an understanding of water management in developing countries and equip you with skills to analyse and design low cost and resource efficient alternatives for improved urban water management in developing countries. Topics covered include water management challenges, institutional and governance aspects, groundwater management, health implications, water treatment, intermittent supply systems, leakage management, flood risk assessment and management, urban drainage, low cost wastewater treatment and onsite/off site sanitation.

Prior knowledge of engineering processes is desired, but the module is designed as a standalone course and the background theory required is provided in the class textbooks. The module is suitable for participants with in a civil and/or environmental engineering degree. Non-specialist candidates  with an interest in water management can benefit from the course, provided they have a scientific background and can understand basic engineering and chemistry concepts.

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES (ILOs) (see assessment section below for how ILOs will be assessed)

This is a constituent module of one or more degree programmes which are accredited by a professional engineering institution under licence from the Engineering Council. The learning outcomes for this module have been mapped to the output standards required for an accredited programme, as listed in the current version of the Engineering Council’s ‘Accreditation of Higher Education Programmes’ document (AHEP-V3).


This module contributes to learning outcomes: SM4m, SM2fl, SM6m, SM3fl, EA3m, EA1fl, EA5m, EA2fl, EP2fl, EP3fl, D7m, D2fl, D8m, D3fl, ET2m, ET2fl, ET3m, ET3fl, ET4m, ET4fl, ET5m, ET5fl, ET6m, ET6fl, EP9m, EP2fl, EP10m, EP3fl, G1m-G4m, G1fl-G4fl


A full list of the referenced outcomes is provided online:


The AHEP document can be viewed in full on the Engineering Council’s website, at


On successful completion of this module, you should be able to:

Module Specific Skills and Knowledge: SM4m, SM2fl, SM6m, SM3fl, EA3m, EA1fl, EA5m, EA2fl, EP10m, EP3fl

1. critical awareness of current water management problems developing countries are facing.

2. understanding of traditional/local approaches and less conventional water management techniques and the ability to evaluate them critically and to apply them effectively.

3. apply modelling techniques for solving complex problems (such as sea intrusion, flood risk assessment, leakage management) and to assess their limitations.

4. use fundamental knowledge to investigate new and emerging technologies/approaches for low cost water management.

5.  apply engineering techniques taking account of a range of commercial and industrial constraints.

Discipline Specific Skills and Knowledge: SM4m, SM2fl, SM6m, SM3fl, D7m, D2fl, D8m, D3fl, ET2m, ET2fl, ET3m, ET3fl, ET4m, ET4fl, ET5m, ET5fl, ET6m, ET6fl, EP9m, EP2fl

6. critical awareness of current problems and new insights most of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of the specialisation.

7. Understand linkages between urban water flows, socio-economic interactions and health implications, and the ability to evaluate them critically and to apply them effectively, including in engineering projects.

8. show knowledge and comprehensive understanding of design processes (for intermittent supply systems, waste stabilisation ponds) and methodologies and the ability to apply and adapt them in unfamiliar situations.

9. generate an innovative design for urban water systems to fulfil new needs.

10. awareness that engineers need to take account of the commercial and social contexts in which they operate.

11. develop knowledge and understanding of management and business practices, their limitations, and how these may be applied in the context of water management in developing countries.

12. awareness that engineering activities should promote sustainable development and ability to apply quantitative techniques where appropriate.

13. knowledge of relevant regulatory requirements governing engineering (water management) activities in the context of developing countries.

14. ability to make general evaluations of risk issues (e.g. health risk, flood risk) in the context of developing countries.

15. thorough understanding of current practice and its limitations, and some appreciation of likely new developments for resource efficient water management in developing countries.

Personal and Key Transferable / Employment Skills and Knowledge: G1m-G4m, G1fl-G4fl

16. apply skills in problem solving, communication, information retrieval, working with others, and the effective use of general IT facilities.

17. plan self-learning and improve performance, as the foundation for lifelong learning/CPD.

18. monitor and adjust a personal programme of work on an on-going basis.

19. prove independence and self-direction in problem solving and decision making.

20. exercise initiative and personal responsibility in professional practice;

21. illustrate effective communication skills using a variety of commonly available media and techniques.

SYLLABUS PLAN - summary of the structure and academic content of the module
  • Water Resources in Developing Countries (Hydrology, watershed and water resources management, Major basins and economic situation and water resources development)
  • Threats to Water Resources in Developing Countries Policy and legislation, corruption and law evasion, anthropological impacts to water resources, climate change: resilience and adaptation.
  • Emerging solutions to the water crisis (Agricultural improvements, Low cost treatment and technologies, treatment of local contaminants Arsenic and metals), non-traditional alternatives. Permaculture. Landscape design)
  • Groundwater resources management (modelling of flow and solute transport in soils, seawater intrusion modelling and control (including effect of sea level rise and over-abstraction).
  • Small community water supply systems (sustainability, health protection, cost-recovery, basic demand calculations, financial sustainability, etc and decision making for design and O&M for these systems)
  • Design and operation of the intermittent water supply systems.
  • Leakage management
    • Leakage basics (causes/effects, etc.)
    • Leakage assessment (top down and bottom up methods)
    • Leakage detection (equipment and modelling based methods)
    • Leakage control (measures to reduce leakage).
  • Urban drainage in developing countries
  • Flood risk/storm water management under fast growth scenarios
  • Water related disease / health implication
  • Low cost wastewater treatment, design and operation considerations for waste stabilisation ponds (e.g. anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds)
  • On and off site sanitation including dry sanitation
  • Case studies
Scheduled Learning & Teaching Activities 30.00 Guided Independent Study 115.00 Placement / Study Abroad 0.00
Category Hours of study time Description
Scheduled learning & teaching activities 30 In class lectures. 3 hours per day.
Guided Independent Study 115 Set of problems/case studies related to the current lectures. 2 hours per DAY


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT - for feedback and development purposes; does not count towards module grade
Form of Assessment Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method
Not applicable.      


Coursework 0 Written Exams 100 Practical Exams 0
Form of Assessment % of Credit Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method

Written Examination (closed book)

100 2 hours - Summer Exam  All Comments and recommendations


DETAILS OF RE-ASSESSMENT (where required by referral or deferral)
Original Form of Assessment Form of Re-assessment ILOs Re-assessed Time Scale for Re-assessment
Written Examination 100 All Ref/Def Exam Period



Ref/Def Examination only.

INDICATIVE LEARNING RESOURCES - The following list is offered as an indication of the type & level of
information that you are expected to consult. Further guidance will be provided by the Module Convener

Basic reading:




Web based and Electronic Resources:


Other Resources:


Reading list for this module:

Type Author Title Edition Publisher Year ISBN Search
Set Mackenzie Davis Introduction to Environmental Engineering McGraw Hill Companies 2008 0070418780 [Library]
Set Butler, D. and Memon, F. A. Water Demand Management International Water Association (IWA) publishing. 2006 [Library]
Set Memon, F.A., Ansari, A.K., Bhanger, M.I., Mahar, R.B. and Memon, M. Sustainable water management in developing countries – Challenges and Opportunities. CWS, University of Exeter 2010 0-9539140-4-6 [Library]
Set Memon, F.A. and Ward, S. Alternative Water Supply Systems. IWA 2015 9781780405506 [Library]
Set Mara, DD and Evans, BE Sanitation and Water Supply in Low-income Countries Ventus Publishing 2011 978-87-7681-866-1 [Library]
ORIGIN DATE Tuesday 10 July 2018 LAST REVISION DATE Tuesday 10 July 2018
KEY WORDS SEARCH Developing countries, water and wastewater treatment, sanitation, urban drainage, groundwater, community scale water supply