# Engineering

## ECM1102 - Core Engineering 1 (2010)

MODULE TITLE CREDIT VALUE Core Engineering 1 30 ECM1102 Dr Liang Hao (Coordinator), Ms Aileen MacGregor, Dr Arnaud Marmier, Prof Mike Belmont, Dr Mustafa Aziz
DURATION: TERM 1 2 3
DURATION: WEEKS
DESCRIPTION - summary of the module content
AIMS - intentions of the module
To introduce fundamental concepts of materials, structures, mechanics and electronics, which provide a foundation for further study in these areas. To consolidate a common knowledge base and begin the development of a learning methodology appropriate to a professional engineer.
INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES (ILOs) (see assessment section below for how ILOs will be assessed)
Note: List A comprises core outcomes that will be covered fully in lectures and must be achieved by all students to meet the minimum university requirement for progression. List B comprises outcomes that are EITHER more difficult to achieve OR are to be achieved by private study (or both). All outcomes will be assessed, and coverage of List B outcomes is essential for both BEng and MEng students. A: THRESHOLD LEVEL (1) Electronics: Students should be able to: Describe electric current in terms of basic atomic theory. Explain (briefly) the difference between conductors and insulators. Define conventional direction of current flow and quantitatively relate current and charge. Apply Coulomb’s law. Quantitatively relate: charge, force, electric field strength, work, displacement, potential energy, electrical potential, and p.d. (potential difference). Apply Ohm’s law to a single resistor. Explain resistor tolerance. Describe how resistance varies with temperature in a conductor. Calculate the power dissipated by a resistor. Define conductance. Draw an equivalent circuit diagram for a real battery and describe the effects of internal resistance quantitatively. Describe how current flows through components connected: in series and in parallel. Calculate the total resistance of sets of resistors identified as concerted in series or parallel, and the total resistance of combinations of resistors drawn so that series and parallel combinations are obvious, and hence calculate the current through and the p.d. across each resistor in combinations of resistors connected across a single emf. Use earth as a reference value for defining potential. Given the potential at one point in a single loop, determine the potential at other points in that loop. Apply the potential divider principle to two resistors in series, and the current divider principle to two resistors in parallel. Describe the construction and use of a potentiometer. Connect voltmeters and ammeters correctly in a circuit. State the ideal impedance of voltmeters and ammeters. Measure resistance. State Kirchoff’s 1st law and apply it to a single circuit junction. State Kirchoff’s 2nd law and apply it to an isolated single loop. Sketch Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits and describe the properties of the component parts. Deduce the Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits for sources, given the open circuit p.d. and the short circuit current. State the principle of superposition and apply it to simple examples. Apply nodal analysis, with step by step prompting, to 2 loop circuits. Use the terms: amplitude, time period, frequency, angular frequency and phase for ac signals. Use appropriate symbols to distinguish between d.c. and a.c. quantities. Relate function expressions, phasor diagrams and plots of sinusoidal signals against time. Determine the r.m.s. values for sinusoidal signals and square waves. Define capacitance. Calculate the capacitance of a simple flat plate capacitor. For both the discharge and the charging of a capacitor through a resistor, sketch capacitor p.d., charge and current against time. Define and calculate time constant. Sketch the response of an RC (low pass) circuit to a square wave. State the reactance of a capacitor and the phase relationship between p.d. and current. Calculate the energy stored in a charged capacitor. Sketch magnetic fields (lines of flux) caused by a bar magnet, a moving charge and by current flowing along a straight wire, round a flat coil and through a solenoid. Describe (qualitatively) the properties of lines of magnetic flux and hence explain the forces between sources of magnetic fields and the motor effect. Relate magnetic flux density to field strength. Use Ampère’s law to calculate the flux density round a straight wire. Calculate the forces (magnitude and direction) acting on a moving charge or a wire carrying a current in a uniform magnetic field (motor effect). Calculate the emf (magnitude and direction) generated in a wire drawn across a uniform magnetic field generator effect). Calculate flux linkage through a coil. State Lenz’s law. Descibe the motor and generator effects and apply quantitatively. Describe the construction of simple AC and DC motors and generators. Calculate torque at back emf in a simple single pole motor. Describe the structure of multi-pole motors and generators. Explain the use of field windings and describe shunt and series wound configurations. State the relationships: between inductance and flux linkage, and between p.d. across an inductor and rate of change of current. For both build up and decay of current in simple LR circuits, sketch current and p.d.s against time. State the reactance of an inductor and the phase relationship between p.d. and current. Calculate the energy stored in an inductor. Distinguish between low-pass and high-pass LR and CR circuits and draw indicative sketches of vout/vin against frequency. Sketch output waveforms for low-pass and high-pass LR circuits for step-up and step-down inputs. For a simple (ideal) transformer: state the relationships between primary and secondary p.d.s, currents and number of turns, and use these relationships to solve straightforward problems. Sketch phasor diagrams showing the phase relationship between p.d. and current for inductors, capacitor and resistors, by themselves and in simple series combinations. Determine impedance, using j notation, for simple series combinations of inductors, capacitor and resistors. Use j notation to write down expressions (without simplifying) for simple LR and CR high and low pass filters. For series LCR and parallel LC resonant circuits: sketch phasor diagrams to show the relationship between p.d. and current for all components, state the resonant frequency and sketch (approximately) the variation of impedance and current with frequency. (2) Mechanics. Force systems, rectangular components, moments, couples; equilibrium, free body diagrams, equilibrium equations; structures, plane trusses, frames and machines. Types of friction, dry friction, rolling friction. Kinematics of particles; kinetics of particles, Newton’s second law, work and energy, elementary impulse and momentum. Carry out basic mechanical-electrical power conversion calculations, including torque, power and efficiency, for motors and generators, including startup, running and stalling torque. Materials: Atomic structure of matter; bonding; structures of solids; elementary thermodynamics. Entropy, phase equilibria, mass balances. Kinetic theory of gases, fluid flow, transport properties. Properties of solids. B: GOOD TO EXCELLENT (1) Describe the construction of different types of resistor. Explain why resistance varies with temperature in conductors and semiconductors. Explain why a battery has internal resistance and discuss the factors that affect its magnitude. Identify series and parallel combinations of resistors in circuit diagrams which require redrawing to make them obvious, and redraw and simplify complicated circuits. Estimate the resistance of combinations of resistors connected in series and parallel, identifying (e.g.) resistors that can be ignored for approximation purposes. Identify (without prompting) potential and current dividers in complicated circuits and use this to simplify circuit analysis. Explain the operation of the Wheatstone bridge. Explain, and determine quantitatively, the effects that voltmeters and ammeters have on the quantities they are being used to measure. Given the parameters of a basic analogue meter movement, calculate the series and shunt resistances required to modify it to specified voltage and current ranges. Apply Kirchoff’s 1st law reliably and without prompting to circuits containing many junctions. Apply Kirchoff’s 2nd law to multi-loop circuits. Derive Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits for circuits acting as sources and containing many components. Use Thévenin’s and Norton’s theorems to simplify multi-loop circuits. Use the principle of superposition, without prompting, to find (e.g.) single Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits for combinations of parallel sources. Apply nodal analysis, without guidance or prompting, to 2 and 3 loop circuits. Determine the r.m.s. values for any periodic signal. For both the discharge and the charging of a capacitor through a resistor, set up and solve the appropriate differential equations. For sinusoidal signals: derive the reactance of a capacitor and the phase relationship between p.d. and current from first principles. Derive the energy stored in a charged capacitor from first principles and explain why a capacitor does not dissipate power. Apply the Biot-Savart law to calculate quantitatively the magnetic flux density around a straight wire, on the axis of a flat coil and inside a long solenoid. Use Ampère’s law to calculate the flux density inside a long solenoid. Illustrate Lenz’s law for different ways of changing the flux linkage through a coil. Explain quantitatively the difference between the properties of shunt and series wound motors Explain the definition of inductance from Lenz’s law. Derive the inductance of a torroidal inductor. Explain how a variable inductor can be made. Derive expressions for build up and decay of current in an inductor in simple LR circuits by setting up and solving the appropriate differential equations. Derive the reactance of an inductor and the phase relationship between p.d. and current. Derive the energy stored in an inductor from first principles and explain why an ideal inductor does not dissipate power. Derive the input resistance of a transformer with a load connected across the secondary winding. Use j notation to obtain the total impedance of series and parallel combinations of inductors, capacitor and resistors.Simplify expressions for Vout/Vin for simple LR and CR high and low pass filters and plot magnitude and phase responses against frequency. Derive expressions for the magnitude of the current in series LCR and parallel LC circuits and plot current against frequency for different values of resistor. Explain in detail what happens in a resonant circuit (series or parallel) as is passes through resonance. Newtonian gravitation; space trusses. Threads, bearings and belt-friction. Impulse and momentum calculations. Draw/analyse angular velocity/torque characteristics for motors. Quantitative treatment of Bohr atom, electronic transitions and consequential effects on material electro-optic properties. Entropy; including entropy effects on occurrence of crystalline and amorphous states in solids. Application of Boltzmann distribution to defect concentrations in solids, electron/hole populations in insulators and semi-conductors and transport phenomena.
SYLLABUS PLAN - summary of the structure and academic content of the module
Force systems; friction, dynamics, impulse and momentum. Circuit elements, basic circuit theorems, ac waveforms, components and analysis. Introduction to electromagnetic phenomena. Atomic structure of matter, thermodynamics, properties of fluids and solids.
LEARNING AND TEACHING
LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS (given in hours of study time)
DETAILS OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS
ASSESSMENT
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT - for feedback and development purposes; does not count towards module grade
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT (% of credit)
 Coursework Written Exams 50 50
DETAILS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
DETAILS OF RE-ASSESSMENT (where required by referral or deferral)
RE-ASSESSMENT NOTES
RESOURCES
INDICATIVE LEARNING RESOURCES - The following list is offered as an indication of the type & level of
information that you are expected to consult. Further guidance will be provided by the Module Convener